When in the 1920s scientists and engineers attempted to control current in solid-state devices and failed, it led to more attempts until finally, the usage of semiconductors led to improvements in fabrication and theory.
With the invention of small transistors, the engineers of the 50s knew they could construct far more advanced circuitry. However, as the circuits got more complex, a host of problems arose. The major problem was the size of the circuit since a complex circuit depended on speed, large components would make the circuit slow. Computers were the major complex circuit at the time, which relied heavily on speed; meant that long wires and big components will make signals take longer through the computer and thus slowing the computer.
When the Integrated Circuit was designed by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce, they used a single block monolith of a semiconductor to make all the components and the chip, thus making the circuitry extremely small. This meant that the manufacturing process could be automated, further leading to the idea of integrating all the components on a single silicon wafer. This was the advent of small-scale integration (SSI) in the early 60s, then medium scale integration (MSI) in the late 60s. This continued till the 70s and 80s where MSI turned to large scale integration (LSI) and very large scale integration (VLSI) which gave the capability to put tens of thousands of transistors on a singular chip. This number has since grown exponentially, from hundreds of thousands to millions and now with the recent developments in nanotechnology, it is possible to integrate billions of transistors and maybe even trillions in the near future.
Why is it important to developing countries like India?
India is a very big nation, second largest in population, the sixth largest economy in the world and the seventh largest country by area. Despite all these significant numbers, India is still a developing country, as its per capita income is still very low as compared to other developed nations. Our country is more of an agriculturally dependent one, there is still time for it to develop into a fully industrialized nation.
It is on the verge of being a heavily industrialized nation and with the technological advancements of today microchips and semiconductors are the industries that are hitting India by storm. Companies and corporations realize India has a great set of hard-working people who are fairly skilled in electronics, but they don’t yet fully want to set up centres in India.
To combat this problem, all the major cities in India have VLSI training institute set up everywhere. These are run by licensed professionals who also conduct classes and guide students to help land jobs and become proficient in the field. There are various VLSI training institutes in Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai each with their own niche and partnership with leading semiconductor companies to offer internships, work and experience for students. With such resourceful institutes backing the youth of India, it is only a matter of time before India becomes a leader in the industry.